Chapter 21: Translating Research into Practice


Chapter 21: Translating Research into Practice
Yoder-Wise: Leading and Managing in Nursing, 6th Edition


1. The chief nursing officer at a local hospital seeking Magnet™ status creates staff development classes concerning translation of research into practice (TRIP). What best describes TRIP?
a. Conducting an integrative review of the literature
b. Searching the literature for a systematic review
c. Providing the results of research studies to practitioners
d. Applying strategies that aid in adoption of research in practice
The science of how research is adopted is known as translation science, the science of translating research into practice (TRIP). The primary aim of research utilization is to activate the change process to move research findings into practice to improve patient outcomes.

REF: Page 394 TOP: AONE competency: Leadership

2. The chief nursing officer at a local hospital seeking Magnet™ status creates staff development classes about incorporating evidence-based practice in nursing. What best describes evidence-based practice?
a. Applying best research evidence to care of patients
b. Using research-based information to develop practice guidelines
c. Conducting a randomized control trial to determine effectiveness of handwashing techniques
d. Developing standards for practice
Evidence-based medicine is derived from evidence-based medicine and involves integration of the best research evidence with clinical expertise and the patient’s unique values and circumstances in making decisions about the care of individual patients. It is focused on searching for, appraising, and synthesizing the best evidence to address a particular clinical practice problem.

REF: Page 385 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

3. The nurse manager decides to change staffing schedules in the intensive care unit. She chooses to use Rogers’ diffusion of innovations theory to implement the change. What are the elements of Rogers’ diffusion of innovations theory?
a. Assessment, planning, intervention, and evaluation
b. Preparation, validation, synthesis, and evaluation
c. Knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, and evaluation
d. Scanning, diagnosis, decision making, application, and reevaluation
Nurse managers disseminate research findings to patient care team members. Rogers’ diffusion of innovations theory provides a useful model for integration of evidence into practice.

REF: Page 391 TOP: AONE competency: Leadership

4. As a nurse manager, you trial a new pain scale on your unit that is supported by numerous research studies. You compare the patient outcomes with the new scale against the existing scale. Feedback from staff suggests that the new scale is too difficult for patients who have limited language skills and who are already under duress to understand. The difficulty in implementing the new scale refers to testing:
a. Efficacy.
b. Effectiveness.
c. Practice failure.
d. Comparative error.
Comparing the effectiveness of interventions can help to address the needs of clinicians in determining best practices for their patients. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is the “generation and synthesis of evidence that compares the benefits and harms of alternative methods to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor a clinical condition or to improve the delivery of care” (Institute of Medicine, 2009, p. 29). Efficacy is testing an intervention or treatment in a traditional randomized clinical trial under carefully controlled conditions and is used to determine whether an intervention or treatment works, whereas effectiveness is testing whether the intervention or treatment works in the real world of practice.

REF: Page 389 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

5. The nurse manager wants to use evidence-based recommendations to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia. In order to effectively gather evidence to guide practice, what is the critical first step?
a. Develop the clinical question.
b. Identify the databases to be used.
c. Appraise the evidence.
d. Integrate available evidence with unit expertise.
Identifying the question may be the most challenging part of the process. Once the clinical question has been identified, writing it down will help in moving on to the next step of gathering evidence.

REF: Page 395 | Page 396 TOP: AONE competency: Leadership

6. A strategic goal developed by the chief nursing officer is to implement an evidence-based practice program. What is an appropriate strategy that can be used by a nurse manager who is beginning to implement an evidence-based practice program?
a. Conducting a review of adverse events and incident reports
b. Soliciting input from staff members
c. Reviewing specialty organization guidelines
d. Identifying patients with extended lengths of stay
Stakeholders need to be involved early, and staff members need to be involved when initiatives involve direct patient care. Involvement assists in understanding issues and concerns, motivations, and unmet needs.

REF: Page 398 TOP: AONE competency: Communication and Relationship-Building

7. The nurse manager of an ICU wants to implement the revised policy and procedure on central line catheter care. What would be the most effective method of getting the staff nurses to incorporate a new evidence-based practice into their care?
a. Conducting an interactive educational workshop
b. Distributing educational materials on clinical units
c. Sharing the results of a chart audit with staff
d. Providing staff with a short DVD on the topic
Dobbins et al. suggest that effective strategies for promoting behavioral change in health professionals include active involvement strategies such as face-to-face information sessions in small groups and one-to-one interactions. Other approaches have mixed or few results.

REF: Page 394 TOP: AONE competency: Communication and Relationship-Building

8. Before implementation of the new policy and procedure on central line catheter care, the nurse manager uses an appraisal system to evaluate the evidence. What is important in using an appraisal system to evaluate the evidence gathered in preparation for development of a new protocol?
a. Limiting the search to randomized clinical trials
b. Matching the appraisal tool to the type of evidence
c. Eliminating qualitative research studies
d. Using only pre-processed evidence
Appraisal tools are specific to the number of studies, as well as to the study design (type of evidence), type of review, and strategy for determining the applicability of evidence to your practice.

REF: Page 397 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

9. To help staff nurses adjust to using research in practice, what strategy would the nurse manager use?
a. Attendance at a regional research conference
b. Formal classes in electronic search techniques
c. Establishing a journal club
d. Issuing reports on the adverse consequences of outdated practices
Journal clubs provide opportunities for engagement in reading research and considering how it might be applied to clinical practice problems, which is considered very effective in behavioral change.

REF: Page 402 TOP: AONE competency: Communication and Relationship-Building

10. What is a strategy that can be used by a small community hospital with limited resources to develop an evidence-based nursing practice program?
a. Hiring a nurse researcher
b. Partnering with nurse researchers at a local university
c. Subscribing to journals devoted to evidence-based nursing
d. Including research competencies in managers’ job descriptions
Partnering with nurse researchers assists in providing nurse researcher expertise and leadership to organizations that do not have the size or the resources to hire nurse researchers.

REF: Page 400 TOP: AONE competency: Communication and Relationship-Building

11. Tara, the unit manager, is telling her colleague about her recent project, which involves seeking the most effective approaches to incontinence care, with the intention of adopting evidence-supported approaches on her dementia care unit. Her colleague suggests that translation of research into practice is:
a. Less important than knowledge-generating research, which is required to advance the nursing profession.
b. A priority of all healthcare practitioners to improve patient care.
c. Characterized by lack of knowledge about how to use evidence to guide practice.
d. So difficult that it is useless to begin the query in the first place.
The National Institutes of Health identified translational research, or getting research into the hands of practitioners to improve patient care, as a priority.

REF: Page 385 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

12. After searching the literature, Tara, the unit manager develops a table that outlines the findings of studies on management of incontinence. She then examines the studies in terms of risk and whether the findings fit within her practice context and for her population of moderately to severely cognitively impaired patients. This is which phase of Stetler’s research utilization model?
a. Preparatory
b. Validation
c. Evaluation
d. Application
The third phase, comparative evaluation and decision making, involves making a decision about the applicability of the studies by synthesizing cumulative findings; evaluating the degree and nature of other criteria, such as risk, feasibility, and readiness of the finding; and actually making a recommendation about using the findings of the studies.

REF: Page 386 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

13. The clinical guidelines for management of incontinence developed by the Registered Nurses Association of Ontario (RNAO):
a. Reflect practice that is fiscally directed and sound.
b. Articulate practice recommendations developed from synthesis and review of evidence.
c. Are intended to increase awareness of issues in incontinence management.
d. Reflect a compilation of information from a variety and range of sources related to incontinence.
The evidence-based practice (EBP) movement has grown exponentially with scientific publications, establishment of collaboration centers, resources on the Web, and grants focused specifically on translating of research into practice. A number of evidence-based nursing centers have been established around the world. These centers have teams of researchers who critically appraise evidence and then disseminate protocols for the use of evidence in practice. In this example, clinical guidelines have been developed by a professional nursing organization on the basis of best possible evidence on incontinence management. Although issues may be raised in the recommendations, the purpose is to guide practice for the purposes of better patient care.

REF: Page 388 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

14. Marie is a long-term staff nurse on the rehab floor. Her unit manager has been eager to adopt evidence-based recommendations related to family-centered care on the unit. Marie’s response has been that she rarely has time to provide care to patients, let alone families, and that there is no good reason to do anything different than what she is already doing. An approach that may gain Marie’s support of the idea is to:
a. Invite Marie to review the studies for herself.
b. Suggest that she does not need to provide family-centered care.
c. Avoid discussion of the idea with her until she initiates it.
d. Secure the support of her closest colleagues on the unit.
As a skeptic, Marie, who is a late majority adopter, needs pressure from colleagues to move her towards support of the recommendations. The translation of research into practice requires that nurse leaders and managers understand group dynamics, individual responses to innovation and change (such as the response of late majority adopters), and the culture of their healthcare organization.

REF: Page 392 TOP: AONE competency: Communication and Relationship-Building

15. You are excited by evidence supporting the use of PDAs at the bedside to improve documentation and patient outcomes. You have disseminated the information through discussions and e-mails and are now ready to begin the process of considering implementation on the unit. To develop positive attitudes toward the use and implementation of the technology, you would discuss your ideas with (Rogers’ diffusion of innovations theory):
a. Harvey, RN, a technology guru, who enthusiastically tries on all new software.
b. Berta, RN, who thoughtfully considers evidence and regularly uses it to try new approaches in her practice.
c. Carol, LPN, who is positive about new ideas but looks to her friends for their ideas about whether or not to try something new.
d. Ben, a 10-year veteran of the unit, who wonders why technology should be used at all. He says that he will use it when there is no chance of security breaks.
Berta is the one with whom you should now have informed conversations, because she is an early adopter who is respected for her thoughtful acquisition and critique of knowledge and application of knowledge to practice. Berta, an early adopter (Rogers’ characteristics of innovation adopters), is more effective in this stage than Harvey, an innovator who may be seen as open to all new ideas regardless of merit.

REF: Page 392 TOP: AONE competency: Communication and Relationship-Building

16. The implementation of saline flushes for capped angiocatheters is an example of:
a. How multilevel and interprofessional application of a procedure can slow adoption of EBP.
b. How competition among disciplines can lead to negative patient outcomes.
c. The reluctance of hospital administrators to act on recommendations from EBP.
d. How a safe, well-known practice outweighs the benefits of adopting a newer practice.
The translation of research into practice operates at four levels: The individual healthcare professional, healthcare groups or teams, organizations, and the larger healthcare system or environment. The adoption of saline flushes illustrates the challenges of communicating EBP to other disciplines and organizations and of the involvement of different levels. This particular innovation needed endorsement by nurses, physicians, and pharmacists, as well as by administrators who needed evidence of lost savings to support adoption.

REF: Page 395 | Page 401 TOP: AONE competency: Leadership

17. Which of the following would be most effective in implementing the findings of Dobbins et al. on treating problems associated with bowel motility?
a. Lecture by a nurse practitioner
b. Workshop for surgical nurses that involves discussion of case studies and application of evidence
c. Discussion of the findings on the bulletin boards at the workstation
d. Education of unit opinion leaders regarding the evidence presented in the studies
Work by Dobbins et al. suggests that translation of research into practice is best facilitated through interactive learning such as workshops. Least effective strategies included didactic learning and distribution of learning materials.

REF: Page 394 | Page 395
TOP: AONE competency: Communication and Relationship-Building

18. Which of the following is an effective approach in the appraisal of research studies?
a. Accept only studies that use a RCT design.
b. When ranking research studies, choose RCTs over qualitative studies.
c. Select only studies with a large sample size.
d. Evaluate the quality of the research against the standards for that type of research.
While randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are generally considered the gold standard for research, it is important to assess not only the method but the quality of the study and its applicability to the question that is being asked. The quality of all studies should be appraised against the standards accepted for that that type of research.

REF: Page 398 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

19. Within a multisite healthcare system, the most appropriate strategy for translation of research would be:
a. Widespread development of protocols using EBP at unit levels.
b. Dissemination of EBP and recommendations to individuals, units, and the organization.
c. Development of the skills of individual managers on how to build guidelines based on EBP.
d. Establishment of an interdisciplinary center to guide and lead the translation of research findings into practice.
At a systems level, the most appropriate approach would be establishing a center that leads in, guides, and promotes EDP across and at various levels.

REF: Page 395 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

20. At an organizational level, which of the following strategies would assist in ensuring that EBP is incorporated into nursing care?
a. Formation of nursing-only implementation teams
b. Restriction of evidence to RCTs
c. Formation of a network of individuals doing research and/or interested in research utilization
d. Avoidance of partnership with experienced researchers
Collaboration, partnerships, and consideration of a variety of evidence appropriate to the clinical questions are important in ensuring translation of evidence into practice. Collaboration is considered particularly critical and can occur through practice-based networks.

REF: Page 401 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

21. Which of the following is most accurate regarding evidence-based practice?
a. Evidence-based practice replaces continuous quality improvement.
b. Evidence-based practice began with medicine and assists in determining which medical models can be applied in nursing practice.
c. Effective and efficient care can already be demonstrated, which means that EBP will soon become redundant.
d. EBP is generally recognized across disciplines and by policymakers as state-of-the-art clinical practice.
EBP is recognized across nursing and other disciplines as reflective of state-of-the-art clinical practice, as it is based on best available evidence.

REF: Page 385 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

22. Which of the following is a meta-analysis?
a. Review of 35 studies on nurse work satisfaction to determine the significance of the aggregated research findings
b. Review of multiple chart audits to determine which errors are being reduced through implementation of evidence-based guidelines
c. RCT comparing the effectiveness of a local anesthetic in reducing the pain of venipuncture in young children
d. Analysis of factors contributing to nurse burnout and dissatisfaction at emergency room sites
Meta-analysis statistically combines the results of several similar studies to determine whether aggregate findings are significant.

REF: Page 393 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

23. Once evidence related to the use of prompted voiding in patients with cognitive impairment has been appraised and integrated with practice, it is important to:
a. Consider whether patients’ families see this as necessary for the well-being of family members.
b. Search large databases such as CINAHL to amass further evidence.
c. Clarify the clinical practice question.
d. Solicit input regarding integration with practice.
EBP is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and the patients’ unique values and circumstances. In this situation, the family’s values and preferences would be considered. Search of databases, clarification of the question, and gaining staff input would occur in the process.

REF: Page 384 | Page 385
TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

24. As the unit manager, you are interested in determining whether patient autonomy is preserved through informed consent in surgical settings. You determine that participatory action research is the best method to address this question. Which of the following is consistent with a participatory action research design?
a. You interview 125 patients who have recently undergone surgery and transcribe the interviews to determine themes. Themes are validated with an expert in informed consent.
b. You circulate a questionnaire to patients who recently underwent surgery and ask for their opinions regarding consent. Data are analyzed and the findings distributed to administration and other groups.
c. An audit is undertaken of signed consents for treatment, to determine if the consent is properly witnessed and signed. Findings are used to inform changes in policies.
d. You meet with a patient group to determine which questions should be asked about patient informed consent and what issues might be encountered and addressed during the research.
In participatory action research (PAR), the members of the community being studied are integral members of the research team and are involved in identifying the questions and addressing the issues involved in the implementation of the research project (Chevalier & Buckles, 2013).

REF: Page 390 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

25. Volunteers in a study are assigned randomly to groups. Some of the volunteers receive an herbal supplement that is reputed to control nausea, and some of the volunteers are assigned to a control group where a placebo is administered. This is an example of a(n):
a. Longitudinal study.
b. RCT.
c. Meta-analysis.
d. Appraisal tool.
RCTs, or randomized controlled trials, always involve testing of a treatment through the random assignment of subjects in the study to an experimental or treatment group or to a control group that receives a placebo.

REF: Page 398 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment


1. A nurse manager introduces prompted voiding into nursing practice on a unit, which is supported by clinical guidelines based on evidence-based practice. The nurses on the unit resist implementation, indicating that the bathroom facilities are too far away for efficient implementation of the guidelines, and that resources are too few to accomplish the initial voiding observations. For the nurse manager in this situation, it is important to have further discussion with the staff regarding (select all that apply):
a. Compatibility of this intervention with the values of staff on the unit.
b. Advantages of prompted voiding over incontinence products and catheterizations.
c. Usefulness of prompted voiding with the particular population of patients on the unit.
d. Feasibility of the program with respect to unit design.
ANS: A, B, C, D
Various theories related to the translation of evidence into practice point to strategies for success in introducing innovation and EBP on units, including determination of how well the innovation fits with the values of the staff; benefits of this practice or innovation over current practice; appropriateness of the innovation or practice for the target group for which the practice is intended; and the feasibility of the innovation from a variety of perspectives, including the physical design or layout of a unit.

REF: Page 386 | Page 387 TOP: AONE competency: Leadership