Chapter 15: Overview of Growth and Development Framework
Edelman: Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span, 8th Edition
1. The nurse is explaining the concept of growth to a parent. Which of the following statements should be made by the nurse?
a. “Growth means adding height and weight to your body.”
b. “We continue to grow in various ways throughout life.”
c. “How much we grow is based on gender.”
d. “Growth stops when we are young adults.”
Growth, in some form, continues throughout life, not just during puberty. Not all growth is based on gender. Growth indicates more than a change in height and weight.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 336
2. Which of the following statements is correct related to the concept of growth
a. Growth occurs mainly during early childhood.
b. Older adults do not experience growth-related changes..
c. Growth refers only to the increase in the size of specific organs and systems.
d. Growth occurs throughout the life cycle.
People experience developmental transitions throughout life, not just during times of rapid physical growth. Growth changes that take place in young, middle-aged, and older adults should be noted. People who think of growth only as it applies to infants, children and adolescents are missing important changes from conception throughout adulthood.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) REF: p. 336
3. The nurse at a well-baby clinic is assessing a 12-month-old child. At birth, the child weighed 7 lb. 3 oz. During this visit, the child weighs 21 lb. 10 oz. Which of the following conclusions would the nurse make about the child’s weight?
a. The infant is gaining weight faster than anticipated.
b. The infant is malnourished.
c. The infant is at the expected weight for his or her age.
d. The infant is having a growth spurt.
A 1-year-old infant is expected to have at least doubled his or her weight by 12 months of age.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 343
4. The school nurse has been asked to order growth charts. Which of the following growth charts should be selected to assessing children in first through fifth grades?
a. Generic body mass index chart
b. Height and weight chart
c. Revised CDC growth chart
d. WHO international growth chart
The CDC recommends the revised 2000 CDC growth charts (including the BMI and the 3rd and 97th percentile) be used for children aged 2 to 20 years.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 343
5. A school nurse is obtaining the height and weight of a 9-year-old child. Which of the following is the best method to assess the child’s growth?
a. Use serial measurements over time.
b. Use this measurement.
c. Use this measurement and compare it with the child’s peers.
d. Use the WHO growth chart to assess this child’s measurements.
When assessing growth data for use in growth charts, it is important to remember that a single measurement taken at one point in time, although helpful in providing a baseline, does not allow for the best assessment of a child’s growth. Serial measurements, plotted on a growth chart over time, best reflect a child’s pattern of growth.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 344
6. A mother comes to the pediatric clinic and says to the nurse, “I am worried about my 11-month-old baby because he is not crawling yet and his brother crawled when he was 11 months old. Is something wrong?” Which of the following statements should the nurse make?
a. “It is highly unusual for siblings not to reach developmental milestones at the same time. I’ll ask the doctor to assess him.”
b. “All babies reach developmental milestones at different rates.”
c. “This may be something to worry about. I’ll have the doctor examine him.”
d. “Don’t worry; he’ll crawl soon enough.”
Although developmental milestones follow a predictable pattern, each child develops at his or her own rate. Telling the mother not to worry is not answering her question.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: pp. 344-345
7. Which of the following statements describes Erikson’s theory of development?
a. A healthy personality is defined by the lack of pathology.
b. Stages of development advance based on psychosocial factors.
c. The main premise of the theory is that individuals are interdependent beings and rely on each other in order to develop successfully.
d. An individual must successfully accomplish the developmental stage before proceeding to the next stage.
Erikson’s theory of development is based on the need of each person to develop a sense of trust in self and others and a sense of personal worth. Each stage depends on the preceding stage, which must be accomplished successfully for the person to proceed. Although the environment and others may influence development, it is primarily an individual task. A person may regress to an earlier stage during times of stress.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) REF: pp. 345-346
8. According to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, which of the following statements is correct?
a. Cognitive function continues to become refined throughout life.
b. A child’s greatest task is to make sense of the world around him or her.
c. Culture plays a major role in cognitive development.
d. Learning precedes development.
Piaget theorized that cognitive development was complete by about age 15. He did not factor the effects of culture into his theory and felt that learning followed cognitive development.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) REF: p. 346
9. Which of the following statements summarizes Vygotsky’s theory of development?
a. All children develop cognitively at the same rate.
b. Social and cultural influences are not major factors in cognitive development.
c. Learning is an individual activity.
d. Experience creates learning.
Vygotsky’s theory of development stresses that social and cultural influences can have a major impact on learning. He felt that cognitive development was dependent on exposure to many life experiences, was influenced by interaction with others, and did not proceed according to predetermined stages.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) REF: pp. 346-347
10. Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is based on:
a. Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development
b. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
c. Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development
d. Gilligan’s theory of moral development
Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is based on Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) REF: pp. 347-348
11. Which of the following statements about Gilligan’s theory of moral development is accurate?
a. This theory is based on a sense of absolute right and wrong.
b. This theory is gender specific.
c. This theory is dependent on one’s stage of cognitive development.
d. This theory is based on the premise that women view situations in terms of rules.
Gilligan’s theoretical work is based on women’s moral development. Kohlberg postulated that men view situations in terms of justice and rules, and that moral development depends on cognitive development.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) REF: p. 348
12. A nurse is caring for a person with the nursing diagnosis of chronic sorrow related to missed opportunities. Which of the following nursing interventions would be appropriate for this person?
a. Sharing a personal story with the person to demonstrate empathy
b. Assuring the person that he or she will be able to cope with the illness
c. Encouraging the person to discuss his or her fears
d. Contacting a support group representative for the person
It is not appropriate to discuss personal issues with an individual. Assuring the individual what he or she will be able to cope with is not appropriate because it does not encourage the person to talk about his or her fears. It is not appropriate to contact a support group without the person’s permission. The person may not be ready to discuss the issue with strangers. The correct response is part of grief work facilitation: helping another cope with painful feelings of actual or perceived responsibility.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) REF: pp. 348-349 (Care Plan)
13. A nurse is teaching parents of a toddler about nutrition. Which of the following statements should be made by the nurse?
a. “Raisins are a good finger food because they provide fiber.”
b. “Grapes are a good snack choice because they help toddlers meet their daily fruit requirements.”
c. “Hot dogs are not a safe food choice because they may cause choking.”
d. “A small piece of chewing gum will help strengthen jaw muscle; just be sure he or she does not swallow it.”
Raisins, grapes, and chewing gum all pose a choking hazard and should not be given to toddlers.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 345 (Box 15-3)
14. A nurse who is conducting a parenting class is asked how to select a good day care center for an 18-month-old child. Which of the following responses should be made by the nurse?
a. “Day care centers that schedule age-appropriate educational videos increase verbal ability.”
b. “Human interaction increases a toddler’s verbal skills, so select a day care center that values adult-to-toddler interaction.”
c. “Learning to understand the meaning of words is increased when toddlers are exposed to educational DVDs, so select a day care center that has an extensive library of age-appropriate, educational DVDs.”
d. “There really is no difference in the quality of day care centers based on whether or not videos or DVDs are used for educational purposes.”
Research has demonstrated that toddlers who are exposed to videos and DVDs have a more limited vocabulary than toddlers who interact with caregivers.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 347 (Box 15-4)
15. A high school sophomore engages in risky behavior to fit in with his peers. According to Erikson’s theory of human development, which of the following developmental conflicts is this student facing?
a. Initiative versus guilt
b. Industry versus inferiority
c. Identity versus role confusion
d. Intimacy versus isolation
According to Erikson, a preschool child has a developmental conflict between initiative and guilt, a school-age child has a developmental conflict between industry and inferiority, and a young adult has a developmental conflict between intimacy and isolation. An adolescent has a developmental conflict between identity and role confusion.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 346 (Table 15-3)
16. A child is focused on peer approval and avoidance of “not fitting in.” According to Kohlberg, this child is experiencing which of the following stages of moral development?
The goal of the conventional stage is gaining approval and avoiding disapproval. The goal of the preconventional stage is avoiding punishment and gaining reward, while the goal of the postconventional stage is agreeing upon rights, establishing personal moral standards, and achieving justice.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 348 (Table 15-5)
17. The nurse is caring for a person who donated a kidney to a stranger in need. According to Gilligan’s stages of moral development, the person who donated the kidney is in which of the following stages?
Characteristics of the conventional stage of Gilligan’s stages of moral development include sacrifice to fulfill the needs of others.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 348 (Table 15-6)
1. A nurse is attending a continuing education program about growth and development. Why is it necessary that nurses are well educated about this content? (select all that apply)
a. Have a better understanding of genetics and genomics
b. Can meet the requirements of Healthy People 2010
c. Can provide more effective health education
d. Can deliver anticipatory guidance to families
ANS: A, C, D
Genetics and genomics is an important part of our age of technology; understanding growth and development aids in the understanding of these topics as well. Health education is more effective when the nurse acknowledges and incorporates growth and developmental needs as well as the individual’s prior understanding of beliefs about health and health-related concepts. Health promotion is an important part of Healthy People 2010, but there are no requirements within this document that nurses need to be educated about growth and development.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 336 | p. 346 (Box 15-3)
2. A nurse is educating new parents about normal growth and development for their child. Which of the following items would the nurse include in this discussion? (select all that apply)
a. Trends in childhood obesity
b. Availability of a well-balanced diet
c. Exposure to lead-based pain
d. Height/weight of relatives
ANS: B, C, D
A well-balanced diet will help assure that the child reaches his or her growth potential. Lead poisoning, an environmental exposure, remains a significant threat to today’s children. Genetic factors greatly influence growth and development.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 336
3. The school nurse is conducting an in-service program for teachers that discusses the development of elementary school children. According to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, which of the following information would the nurse include? (select all that apply)
a. Use abstract thought to discuss a story.
b. Make moral decisions concerning right and wrong actions.
c. Listen to a peer’s point of view about a playground situation.
d. Be influenced by his or her friends.
ANS: C, D
Children age 7 to 11 are in the concrete operations stage of development according to Piaget. They are influenced by friends and can listen to and think about a peer’s point of view. Moral decision making and use of abstract thought occur during the formal operations stage of development, usually between the ages of 11 and 15 years.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) REF: p. 347 (Table 15-4)