Chapter 13: Care Delivery Strategies


Chapter 13: Care Delivery Strategies
Yoder-Wise: Leading and Managing in Nursing, 6th Edition


1. Complex care of acutely ill patients is required on a surgical unit, which utilizes differentiated nursing practice as its model of care delivery. The concept of differentiated nursing practice is based on:
a. Licensure status.
b. Experience in the agency.
c. Leadership capabilities.
d. Education and expertise.
Differentiated nursing practice models are models of clinical nursing practice that are defined or differentiated by level of education, expected clinical skills or competencies, job descriptions, pay scales, and participation in decision making.

REF: Page 245 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

2. The relief charge nurse has assigned a newly licensed baccalaureate-prepared nurse to be one of the team leaders for the 3-11 shift. In making this decision, the charge nurse has overlooked this nurse’s:
a. Clinical expertise.
b. Leadership ability.
c. Communication style.
d. Conflict-resolution skills.
Because the basic education of baccalaureate-prepared RNs emphasizes critical-thinking, clinical reasoning, and leadership concepts, they are likely candidates for such roles. Benner (2001), however, identified five stages of clinical competence for nurses: novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. She suggests that competence is typified by a nurse who has been on the job in the same or similar situation 2 to 3 years. Nurses who are at the novice or advanced beginner stage would be less likely than their more experienced counterparts to implement any type of delivery model effectively and thus, this assignment overlooks the nurse’s level of clinical expertise and leadership experience.

REF: Page 237 | Page 245
TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

3. When interviewing an applicant for a position, the nurse manager describes the unit’s care delivery system as one in which each nursing assistant is cross-trained to perform specific tasks, and the RNs do all treatment, medication administration, and discharge teaching. The nurse applicant knows this nursing care delivery strategy to be:
a. The case method.
b. Functional nursing.
c. Primary nursing.
d. Nurse case management.
The functional model of nursing is a method of providing patient care by which each licensed and unlicensed staff member performs specific tasks for a large group of patients.

REF: Page 234 | Page 235
TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

4. You are the nurse manager of a nursing service organization that provides around-the-clock care to clients in their homes. To achieve maximum reimbursement for a client who is recovering from a hip replacement, the nursing staff most likely will follow the nursing care guidelines presented in the:
a. Nursing care plan.
b. Physician’s orders.
c. Critical pathway.
d. Clinical practice guidelines.
A critical pathway outlines outcomes, clinical standards, and interventions for a patient in each phase of treatment. The goal of critical pathways is effective coordination of care across various staff and levels of care.

REF: Page 242 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

5. The nurse case manager is working with a client admitted for end-stage renal disease. The case manager’s major goal during this hospitalization is to:
a. Implement the care pathway on admission.
b. Provide direct nursing care throughout the hospitalization.
c. Supervise the nursing staff members who implement the care map.
d. Prevent additional hospitalizations resulting from complications of the client’s disease.
The goals and outcomes established in a critical pathway are designed to support the aims of case management, which are shortened hospital stays and prevention of hospital readmissions.

REF: Page 241 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

6. The nurse manager at a cardiac rehabilitation unit was asked to select a care delivery model. Which of the following methods would be the most cost-effective?
a. Functional method
b. Case management method
c. Primary care method
d. Team method
Team nursing, functional nursing, and case management are all considered efficient, cost-effective methods of care delivery because they enable utilization of various types of healthcare providers (rather than baccalaureate nurses in direct care, which is the primary nursing method). Case management is considered particularly cost-effective in patient care settings because it maintains quality care while streamlining costs for high-risk, high-volume, high-cost patient populations and seeks the active involvement of the patient, the family, and diverse healthcare professionals.

REF: Page 241 | Page 242 TOP: AONE competency: Business Skills

7. In an acute care unit, the nurse manager utilizes the functional nursing method as the care delivery model. The nurse manager’s main responsibility is the needs of the:
a. Department.
b. Unit.
c. Staff.
d. Patient.
In a functional nursing model, where other team members are focused on performing specific tasks, the nurse manager assumes primary responsibility for patient outcomes.

REF: Page 235 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

8. A patient is admitted to a medical unit with pulmonary edema. His primary nurse admits him and then provides a written plan of care. What type of educational preparation best fits the role of primary nurse?
a. Baccalaureate
b. Associate
c. Diploma
Because of the breadth of nursing knowledge required, baccalaureate education is preferred for primary nurses.

REF: Page 238 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

9. In a small rural nursing home, a director of nursing decides, because of a shortage of nurses, to implement a partnership model to help with basic tasks that comply with state rules regarding delegation. What type of design constitutes a partnership care delivery model?
a. RN and LPN/LVN
b. RN and RN
c. RN and medication assistants
d. RN and certified nurses’ aides
The partnership care delivery model is a variation of primary nursing in which an RN works with a consistent assistant, who performs basic nursing functions consistent with state delegation rules.

REF: Page 241 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

10. The case method of care delivery could be best justified in which of the following scenarios?
a. Stable patient population with long-term care and family needs
b. Acute care surgical unit with predictable postsurgical outcomes and many technical procedures
c. Pediatric intensive care unit that heavily involves families as well as patients
d. Home healthcare environment with patients at varying levels of acuity
This model is especially useful in the care of complex patients who need active symptom management provided by an RN, such as the care of the patient in a hospice setting or an intensive care unit. This method would be justifiable delivery in the pediatric intensive care unit, where the status of patients can change rapidly and where complex functions of care involve both patients and families.

REF: Page 234 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

11. During times of nursing shortages and increased nursing costs in health care, which of the following nursing care delivery models might come under greatest scrutiny?
a. Case method
b. Team nursing
c. Functional nursing
d. Nurse case management
The case method may involve total patient care provided by a registered nurse, which, in today’s costly healthcare economy, is very expensive. In times of nursing shortages, there may not be enough resources or nurses to use this model.

REF: Page 233 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

12. A patient complains to you that she has no idea who “her nurse” is on any given day. “I ask one nurse for my pills and she says, ‘That’s not my job.’ I ask the pill nurse about my lab tests and she says that I should ask another nurse.” The nursing care delivery model most likely employed in this situation is:
a. Differentiated practice.
b. Team nursing.
c. Functional nursing.
d. Case management.
Functional team nursing involves licensed and unlicensed personnel who perform specific tasks for a large number of patients. A disadvantage of functional team nursing is the fragmentation of care. The physical and technical aspects of care may be met, but the psychological and spiritual needs may be overlooked. Patients become confused with so many different care providers per shift. These different staff members may be so busy with their assigned tasks that they may not have time to communicate with each other about the patient’s progress.

REF: Page 235 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

13. A patient complains to you that she has no idea who “her nurse” is on any given day. “I ask one nurse for my pills and she says, ‘That’s not my job.’ I ask the pill nurse about my lab tests and she says that I should ask another nurse.” This nursing care delivery model employed in this situation might be particularly effective in:
a. Promoting communication among diverse team members.
b. Facilitating multiple perspectives on the total care of a patient.
c. Avoiding patient-provider conflict.
d. Developing competence and confidence in unskilled workers.
An advantage of functional nursing is that both unskilled assistive personnel and skilled staff are involved in performance of specific tasks, and the repeated performance of tasks enables staff to become very efficient in specific functions. Disadvantages of the model include difficulty in being able to assess the patient’s nonphysical needs effectively and the potential for ineffective communication because of the focus on specific tasks.

REF: Page 235 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

14. For a nurse manager in the functional nursing model, an approach that will assist in maintaining staff satisfaction in this specific model is:
a. Rotation of task assignments.
b. Frequent opportunities for in-service education.
c. Orientation to job responsibilities and performance expectations.
d. Team social events in off hours.
Although repetition of tasks increases confidence and competence, it can also lead to boredom. Rotation of tasks can assist specifically in this model to reduce the boredom that is a potential disadvantage of this model.

REF: Page 236 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

15. In comparing team and functional models of care, a nurse manager favors the team model. In particular, she finds that the team model:
a. Can be effective in recognizing individual strengths and backgrounds of staff.
b. Promotes autonomy and independence for the RN.
c. Avoids conflict because of role clarity.
d. Is efficient in delivering care to a large group of patients, utilizing a staffing mix.
Team nursing delivers care to a small group of patients, using a mix of licensed and unlicensed personnel. Team nursing uses the strengths of each caregiver.

REF: Page 238 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

16. To effectively delegate in a team nursing environment, the RN team leader must be familiar with the legal and organizational roles of each group of personnel and must:
a. Be able to effectively communicate with patients.
b. Build relationships with physicians.
c. Be able to adapt to daily changes in staffing.
d. Adapt in communicating information to her supervisor.
A particular challenge in team nursing is that staff mixes and staff may change daily because of individual schedules and shortages.

REF: Page 238 TOP: AONE competency: Leadership

17. A nurse manager questions the true difference between primary nursing and total patient care. After careful consideration of both models, the nurse manager concludes that primary nursing differs significantly from total patient care in:
a. Breadth of nursing knowledge and expertise required.
b. Intention to provide holistic nursing.
c. Degree of task orientation.
d. Levels and types of assessment.
Significant overlap can be seen between primary nursing and total patient care in terms of breadth of assessment and knowledge required to provide holistic care. A primary difference is that nurses in the total care model assume accountability while on shift, whereas primary nurses assume responsibility from time of admission to discharge and 24 hours a day.

REF: Page 233 | Page 236 | Page 239
TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

18. A conflict develops between an associate nurse and a primary nurse over the assessment of a patient with pulmonary edema. Based on her assessment of the patient, the associate nurse insists that it is her role to change the care plan because she is the one who has made the assessment. As the nurse manager, you clarify that:
a. It is the role of the primary nurse to make alterations based on assessment data and input.
b. The associate nurse is accountable and responsible while the primary nurse is off duty and therefore is able to alter the care plan.
c. Neither the primary nor the associate should make changes without first consulting you as the manager.
d. It really does not matter who alters the nursing care plan as it depends on situation and time to do so.
The primary nursing model assumes that the primary nurse is accountable for patient care, even while off duty. The primary nurse is responsible for establishing the patient plan of care and therefore for altering it with the input of an associate. The associate is responsible for implementation of the established care plan when the primary nurse is off duty.

REF: Page 240 TOP: AONE competency: Communication and Relationship-Building

19. When comparing functional nursing and primary nursing, a nurse manager, after evaluating particular models of nursing care for potential adoption, determines that patient and nurse satisfaction in primary nursing are:
a. Similar to those in functional nursing.
b. Not of significance in either model.
c. Low by comparison with functional nursing.
d. High when compared with functional nursing.
Although some studies suggest there is little difference between functional nursing and primary nursing, primary nursing tends to be more satisfying for RNs, who enjoy a high level of accountability and autonomy in decision making. Patient satisfaction is also high, as patients form close therapeutic relationships with the nurse because of the continuity of the relationship. Functional nursing is criticized for low patient satisfaction and potential staff dissatisfaction related to boredom and an autocratic approach to management.

REF: Page 239 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

20. In transitioning to a primary nursing model, it is important for a nurse manager who enjoys a high level of control over patient care to understand that his or her decision making at the patient care level:
a. Is increased.
b. Is decreased.
c. Is relinquished.
d. Remains the same.
The nurse manager who is considering movement to primary nursing needs to consider how the role of the manager changes, as well as the roles of the staff. The role of decision making at the patient care level is relinquished to the primary nurse, and the role of manager becomes that of facilitator, coach, mentor, role model, and clinical resource.

REF: Page 240 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

21. You are considering putting forward a proposal to move the model of care from team nursing to a primary nursing hybrid: patient-focused care model. In considering this proposal, you recognize that significant costs specific to operationalizing this model are related to:
a. Implementation of an all-RN staff complement.
b. Significant changes in the physical structure of units.
c. Orientation of staff to new roles and responsibilities.
d. Testing and piloting technology at the bedside.
This particular model includes a focus on patient care that includes multidisciplinary teams and assistants at the bedside. Services, including laboratories and pharmacies, are decentralized to bring them closer to where care is delivered.

REF: Page 241 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

22. When hiring a case manager for a rehabilitation setting, you would most likely consider a:
a. Registered nurse with a master’s degree.
b. Physiotherapist with a background in stroke rehabilitation.
c. Social worker with a background in counseling.
d. Health professional with advanced background who is client and outcome focused.
Case managers can come from a variety of disciplines but should have advanced preparation with the particular at-risk population being served, be comfortable in an advocate role, and be outcome and patient focused.

REF: Page 243 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment

23. Case managed care may enhance profit in a for-profit health organization by:
a. Minimizing costs in high resource consumption areas.
b. Combining licensed and non-licensed care providers in delivering patient care.
c. Increasing reimbursement from third-party payers.
d. Reducing the amount of technology used to support clinical decision making.
Case managed care is not revenue generating but rather revenue protecting in that better coordination of care enables efficient achievement of patient outcomes, can result in shorter length of stay, and can prevent readmission.

REF: Page 241 TOP: AONE competency: Business Skills

24. In hiring nurses during the transition from team nursing to a primary nursing model, Benner’s work would suggest that you give priority to nurses who are at least at which level of competency?
a. Advanced beginner
b. Competent
c. Proficient
d. Novice
Nurses who have less than 2 or 3 years’ experience in primary nursing and/or less than 2 or 3 years of nursing experience will likely require more assistance than other nurses, which will put a greater demand on the unit during a time of transition.

REF: Page 245 | Page 246 TOP: AONE competency: Business Skills

25. In considering whether or not to accept a job offer as a nurse manager at a Magnet™ hospital, you look at an environment that you might encounter as a head nurse at the hospital. You determine that you could expect to:
a. Find it difficult to recruit new staff.
b. See rapid turnover of staff on your unit.
c. Find nurses who exemplify interest in quality care.
d. Find limited interest in excellence in the nursing environment.
Magnet™ hospitals exemplify hospitals whose focus processes attract and retain nurses who value and promote quality care and excellence in nursing environments.

REF: Page 247 TOP: AONE competency: Knowledge of the Health Care Environment


1. Your organization has made a decision to implement TCAB in your hospital. As a manager, what strategies would you use to implement TCAB? (Select all that apply.)
a. Encourage recognition among staff of their knowledge of the patient-care environment.
b. With staff, select small changes for consideration.
c. Select only projects that have widespread impact.
d. Secure external advisors to evaluate innovation.
e. Present ideas based on best practices and ask staff for advice on implementation.
ANS: A, B, E
Transforming care at the bedside (TCAB) relies on active involvement of staff in the generation of innovative ideas to improve patient care. Staff are actively engaged in selecting innovation, planning, and evaluation of the innovations. Critical to practice changes, rapid cycle change is a process that encourages testing creative change on a small scale while determining potential impact.

REF: Page 247 | Page 248 TOP: AONE competency: Leadership